Flood

Floods in the Missouri, Mississippi and Arkansas river basins caused $20 billion in damage in 2019, the second-wettest year on record.

ARNOLD, Mo. — Hollywood Beach Road was once such prime real estate that the neighborhood had its own airstrip, enabling well-heeled residents to zip back and forth between homes in nearby St. Louis and weekend cottages on the Meramec River in suburban Arnold, Missouri.

Floods eventually took their toll. Nowadays, all that remains of those waterfront dwellings are crumbling concrete foundations amid a tangle of skinny trees and beaver-gnawed stumps. Nature is reclaiming the area — and is welcome to it, local leaders say.

Instead of building levees to keep floodwaters out, Arnold has used federal and local tax dollars to buy out hundreds of homeowners so the landscape could revert to wetlands that soak up overflow waters.

Those wetlands helped the town of 21,000 escape major damage in 2019 when the Mississippi River reached its second-highest level on record. And they reflect a pattern quietly emerging from a growing number of communities that could help the nation’s midsection cope with rivers often surging beyond their banks at this time of year.

Floods in the Missouri, Mississippi and Arkansas river basins caused $20 billion in damage in 2019, the second-wettest year on record.

The National Weather Service forecast moderate to severe problems in 23 states this spring but said last week the risk had declined because of below-normal rainfall in the past two months.

Longer term, one government assessment predicts annual flood damage in the Midwest growing by $500 million by 2050.

But the floodplain awaiting this year’s surge is part of a changing picture, altered from just a few decades ago.

“It’s becoming evident that we have to do something different,” said Colin Wellenkamp, executive director of the Mississippi River Cities and Towns Initiative. “That increasingly means shaping our cities around the river instead of shaping the river around our cities.”

To give rivers more room to sprawl, cities are keeping adjacent lands for limited uses such as parks that can flood when rivers rise. A few rural levees have been set back or removed to create wider flow paths. Wetlands have been restored as buffers.

No one suggests replacing levees, dams and walls as a primary means of flood control.

“But they need to be augmented by natural assets,” said Wellenkamp, whose organization represents nearly 100 municipalities.

This approach is gradually catching state and federal policymakers’ attention. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, which has built dams and levees since the late 19th century, is becoming more receptive.

Congress has instructed the agency in recent years to consider “natural” or “nature-based” flood control measures.

“We are definitely trying to make sure we’re giving these features a fair shake,” said Maria Wegner, senior policy adviser with the Corps headquarters in Washington, D.C.

Experts don’t know exactly how many land buyouts or set-asides have taken place to create new buffers, but said the cases are adding up. Wellenkamp’s organization has commissioned a study to compile a list.

Some projects emphasize restoring wildlife habitat, with flood prevention an additional benefit. In one case, the Corps moved back a levee south of Hannibal, Missouri, to open about 325 acres to river flow.

But for many towns, flood control is the primary motive.

Davenport, Iowa, is in the vanguard of rethinking flood control. Even after waters covered its downtown business district last year, the town decided against a flood wall. Instead, it will continue relying on parkland along its 9-mile-long Mississippi riverfront and on a 300-acre marsh.

The small town of Grafton, Illinois, perched where the Mississippi and Illinois rivers meet, also has rejected building walls that would obscure scenic views. Instead, it used sediment dredged from a marina to recreate a wetland in a shallow area of the Mississippi.

Some attempts to give rivers more room have drawn resistance — particularly along the Missouri, the nation’s longest.

Hundreds of farmers and business owners sued the Corps for creating more wildlife habitat along the Lower Missouri, saying it worsened flooding.

And property rights activists have opposed federal plans to expand the Big Muddy National Wildlife Refuge from 16,600 to 60,000 acres by purchasing more land from willing sellers.

Still, there are signs of changing attitudes. Republican senators from Iowa, Kansas, Missouri and Nebraska introduced legislation in March that calls for the Army Corps to use “both structural and nonstructural measures” to reduce flooding on the Missouri.

Federal disaster legislation provided an extra $217.5 million for conservation easements in 13 hard-hit states.